PSSM

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Unexpected Journey to a Sane Horse – Calcium Supplements For Horses, Nervous Horse, Oxalates, and Keeping A PSSM Journal

calcium supplements for horses, oxalate dumping in urine, pssm horses

How to calm a nervous horse… with calcium supplements for horses? A daunting task to undertake is supplementing calcium, mostly due to calcium’s reputation for causing kidney stones. Below you’ll get a glimpse of our year-long quest to understand why calcium is so important for Jax (despite high calcium in our hay analysis), and our attempts to find the perfect supplement to help him.

Calcium Supplements for Horses: oxalates, symptoms of oxalate poisoning, and ways to fight high oxalates:

Oxalates are a salt or ester of oxalic acid. Oxalates can be irritating for those sensitive to them, as they can trigger pain and inflammation. Many foods are high oxalate, and there are low oxalate diets and supplements for people who are sensitive. But what about our horses? How do we know our horses have an oxalate issue?

“…horsemen should also be aware of substances that can impede proper absorption of calcium, such as oxalates.” [emphasis mine] 1 So we should be looking for calcium deficiency symptoms as one sign horses may be having trouble with oxalates. “Typical signs of oxalate poisoning are labored breathing, staggering, recumbency, depression, gastroenteritis, and diarrhea. Severe colic may occur in cases of halogeton toxicity. Postmortem examination usually reveals calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys and numerous other tissues and organs.” 1

Calcium Supplements for Horses as a means to help with oxalates?

Calcium carbonate is a common treatment for oxalate issues, and I think this is why calcium carbonate helped Jax for nearly a year. However, in early 2021 I rediscovered Equifeast, a different kind of calcium supplement, and according to their website 8 chelated calcium is much better for oxalate issues and calcium carbonate will only help temporarily. There’s some anecdotal evidence that baking soda can also help with oxalates, but I need to do more research in this area.

Calcium Supplements for Horses: sources of oxalates which have been an issue for Jax :

  1. Alfalfa: “From 20 to 33% of calcium in alfalfa is in the form of oxalate…” 2 “Birds most effectively removed [oxalate] crystals…; nonruminant herbivores, the least effectively.” 3 From these two quotes it seems that a large portion of calcium in alfalfa is an oxalate compound, and horses (which are nonruminant herbivores) are the least effective at utilizing these compounds.
  2. Soy: “The researchers measured nearly a dozen varieties of soybeans for oxalate, a compound that can bind with calcium in the kidney to form kidney stones. They also tested 13 types of soy-based foods, finding enough oxalate in each to potentially cause problems for people with a history of kidney stones, according to Linda Massey, Ph.D., at Washington State University in Spokane.” 4
  3. Clover (red): “Clover contains many oxalates. This is a plant containing oxalic acid. Oxalic acid is an antinutritive component that “robs” calcium and iron, preventing its absorption in the intestine.” 5

These three feeds/forages are all legumes and are the three main feeds Jax has issues with – and I assumed legumes were his problem (possibly due to potassium levels since he has a propensity towards electrolyte imbalance symptoms according to Calm Healthy Horses’ list 6). However, peas are also a legume yet Jax handled pea protein isolate just fine – and peas are low in oxalates!

Calcium Supplements for Horses: Symptoms I thought were PSSM but may have been due to oxalates:

  • “Bloody” urine – dark urine happens when muscle cells break down and go through the kidneys. However, oxalates are sharp and can cause bleeding in the kidneys! So oxalates’ effects on kidneys can look like muscle damage from a PSSM episode! Oxalates can also cause frequent need to urinate, so when PSSM horses are constantly stopping to urinate (camping out) it could be kidneys rather than muscle cramping! 7
  • Back pain – back pain is associated with PSSM, however it’s also associated with kidney discomfort. 7
  • Spooky, erratic, nervous horse behavior 8
  • Interestingly, these are Jax’s only persistent “PSSM” symptoms!

Calcium Supplements for Horses: what causes high oxalates?

  • Dehydration
  • High oxalate diet
  • High protein diet (!)
  • High salt diet 7

Most PSSM diets include salt supplementation, and PSSM2 diets include protein supplementation. I already know that I over-supplemented magnesium, but did I also unintentionally cause an oxalate issue with salt and/or protein?

I need to do a LOT more study on this, but for now I’ll leave you with a month of Jax’s PSSM journal, which catches his last few days tolerating calcium carbonate, some “oxalate dumping” (which I also need to research more!), and his introduction to chelated calcium:

How To Calm a Nervous Horse Using Calcium Supplements for Horses, and Keeping a PSSM Journal

Journaling is huge for managing a PSSM horse. I usually journal in a spreadsheet with different headers such as date, temperature, diet, grams of blankets, tack used, hoof issues, if back pain was present, and notes for the description of what we did and how he handled it. You can also journal in the form of an outline as shown below. February of 2021 brought a lot of changes for Jax, so I’ll show you our journal from the 2021 winter storm, the addition of G-Tract and Nerve & Spine, and the change from calcium carbonate to chelated calcium in Jax’s diet (2/12-3/18, red denotes a change):

  • 2/12-2/19 – (Lows down to -15*F and highs below 20*F) – Winter storm – 1 lb beet pulp, 7g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks
    • I found that Jax accepts the taste of ImmuBiome MUCH better if I add Gutwerks (a gut supplement he’s been on for over a year)!
    • Herbs – 1/4 tsp St. Johns’ Wort and Valerian most days, but skipping some days so he’ll move around more (too calm = less movement!)
    • opened up 2 wooded acres for movement, but only able to walk maybe 1/4 mile every other day through our woods (big hill and snow does make it a decent workout though!).
    • Giving small doses of baking soda (about 1/8 tablespoon) on occasion just in case it may help him through. Baking soda typically helps him with bloody urine and exercise intolerance, which we’ve not seen during our current stint of low work levels, but which I feel is very likely to happen if we’re not careful.
  • 2/20-21 – (43*F and 51*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 7g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/8 dose G-Tract, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks
    • Herbs – 1/4 tsp St. Johns’ Wort and Valerian
    • Nicer weather starting, finally able to walk safely on the roads again. Is stiff and having a hard time getting back into work, hinds a bit stompy, and is back to napping and not wanting to go forward.
    • mild bloody urine
  • 2/22 – (55*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 7g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/8 dose G-Tract, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks, 1/8 tbsp baking soda
    • Herbs – 1/4 tsp SJW and Valerian
    • unblanketed and rode in new Edix pad and Trekker with Barefoot panels.
    • A very nervous horse in the beginning but calmed about 1 mile in. Got on and turned him around for home, and he did well for the rest of the ride. Back was sore after the ride (unusual), but has been sore the last few days (low work levels always increase back pain).
  • 2/23 – (72*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 7g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/8 dose G-Tract, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks, no baking soda
    • Herbs – 1/8 tsp SJW and Valerian (starting to taper down as he has to go off these for the EquiFeast PSSM trial)
    • About 1/2 mile in saw spasms in his long back muscles, in the perfect position to understand why he’s having back pain. This is probably due to low work levels for over a week. However he did get a bit of grass before our walk today – that normally doesn’t trigger him, but with almost no work this past week the combination may have been too much.
    • before spasms kept stopping and lagging behind.
  • 2/24 – (57*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 1-2g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/8 dose G-Tract, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks, 1/4 tbsp baking soda.
    • Herbs – 1/4 tsp SJW and Valerian
    • I’m getting paranoid about tiny issues that seem to be getting bigger. Small chin spasm when he’s on more than 10g of calcium carbonate; lagging slower and slower on our walks; getting lethargic immediately after meals, straining to urinate and defecate. Gave baking soda due to spasms yesterday.
    • Showing signs of spring electrolyte issues – mildly shaky, can see a faint hint of heart beat in his chest. Overall not showing ANY anxiety with lower calcium and added baking soda which is new (going under 7g of calcium carbonate usually causes bloody urine and spookiness)
    • Found evidence of calcium dumping – snow melted a couple days ago, and I’m finding urine spots with minerals deposits! Huge clumps of minerals! Some manure piles also have white powdery spots.
  • 2/25 – (52*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 0g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/4 dose G-Tract, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks, 1/4 tbsp baking soda.
    • Herbs – 1/8 tsp SJW and Valerian
    • no bloody urine
    • very forward but ready to turn around at the .75 mile mark
    • gut changes – droppings were a bit looser than they’ve recently been
    • still has mild mineral residue in urine spots, but no major clumps
  • 2/26 – (46*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 0g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/4 dose G-Tract, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks, no baking soda.
    • Herbs – 1/8 tsp SJW and Valerian
    • mild bloody urine
    • NO exercise intolerance. Very forward compared to dragging behind for the last few months. I turned us around at the 1.5 mile mark to make sure he didn’t work too hard – he didn’t want to turn around! Very forward and walked next to me the whole time, which he hasn’t been able to do for months.
    • Super calm despite removal of calcium and lowering of calming herbs!
    • Seems more comfortable in his gut? Was unsure the last few days if G-Tract was a good addition, but today makes me think it is. Is the removal of calcium carbonate also helping? His dropping have been a bit tighter since being on calcium, but not enough to cause worry – but maybe enough to be a bit uncomfortable? Did adding baking soda cause calcium oxalate dumping, and did oxalate dumping cause him to handle going off calcium carbonate?
    • NO chin spasm – was it the calcium carbonate?
  • 2/27 – (61*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 0g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract, 1/2 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks, 1/4 tbsp baking soda.
    • Herbs – none
    • didn’t urinate during work – usually a good sign that kidneys are well. No new mineral deposits in urine spots.
    • Mildly lame at trot, possibly from right hind. Went 2 miles, relatively forward but some stopping. Barometric pressure dropping with oncoming storm – may have played a part. Otherwise happy, loose floppy lip, and lots of playing and running in the field that morning when it was warmer and pressure steady (which could have stiffened up his hind end).
  • 2/28 – (55*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, 0g calcium carbonate, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract, 1/4 dose of Horsetech’s Gutwerks, no baking soda.
    • Herbs – none
    • didn’t urinate during work – usually a good sign that kidneys are well. No new mineral deposits in urine spots.
    • Quick .5 mile hand walk in full blankets (55*F but felt cold with wind/dampness). Not really enough to “exercise” him but enough to move him out a bit. Was super interested in his environment but not spooky, forward and happy.
  • 3/1 – (53*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract.
    • Herbs – none
    • didn’t urinate during work – usually a good sign that kidneys are well. No new mineral deposits in urine spots.
    • Didn’t eat all of his food – maybe 2/3. Will have to split EquiFeast into 2 meals starting tomorrow. That said, was SUPER laid back, comfortable, and happy in our 1.6 mile hand walk. He was yawning and mellow while eating, so the chelated calcium hit him quick. After work got 2 hours of grazing and didn’t get spooky on grass and wild herbs that grow around the property, which has been an issue for us for a few months now. He was so calm he almost seemed doped up, however he’d perk right out of it as needed (with no spooking, despite dogs running beside him, a 4 wheeler behind him, and cows running around in the pastures) – I think he just felt really good!
Calcium supplements for horses: the trigger point that affects Jax’s sore right lumbar area.
  • 3/2 – (57*F) – 2 lb beet pulp, EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract.
    • Herbs – none
    • Hand walked 5 miles. Did some trigger point work on his hip on one of his common sore spots before walk (see video above). Pee was normal, but didn’t have to urinate until halfway through instead of his regular urinating at the beginning of exercise.
    • New gravel on the roads but he stomped through it like it was nothing! Held pace, no spookiness, nice and forward.
    • Something I noticed the first day of EquiFeast and it was even better today: Jax normally can’t put his head down for grass without feeling “off” – trippy, like he’s going to lay down – sometimes he’ll even kick himself in the face – basically a lack of coordination when he drops his head. Lately I’ve been concerned with neck arthritis or other spinal issues as it seemed to be progressing. Today, he was in total control of motor skills. No major tripping, no looking like he would lay down when he put his head down – nothing. Just solid, as he should be! We’re ONLY two days in – is this a fluke? Could it work this quick? I’m also on chelated calcium (have been for almost a month) and have noticed better coordination for myself – so I’m praying this is the beginning of something wonderful.
  • 3/3 – (68*F) – day off work, no supplements (EquiFeast is only supposed to be given 5 days/week), just timothy hay and some wooded pasture
    • Low the night before was supposed to be 36*F, but dropped into the mid-20s! I had blanketed with just a medium weight with thin half neck (since I was going to be gone and wouldn’t be able to change blankets) – I knew he’d be in bad shape when I saw the temps – however, he was warm and happy at morning check! I left for the day and didn’t get back until after dark, and I still had a happy boy looking for his beet pulp meal lol (didn’t get BP, but did get 1/2 a carrot – spoiled nugget that he is!). Low again tonight of 36, left him in the same blankets and will get back to routine tomorrow.
  • 3/4 – (68*F) – 2 lb beet pulp, EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract.
    • I decided to work Jax a few hours after first feeding to see if he was as calm later in the day – he wasn’t lol. He was spooky when I went out to get him, but calmed while eating some hay and tacking up which surprised me. I hand walked one mile, got on and rode back, and he was really good. After having a day off yesterday I’m really happy with how he did today. I’m going to trial feeding early and riding later again tomorrow.
  • 3/5 – (51*F) – 2 lb beet pulp, EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract.
    • Rainy weather – he was cool in 200g so I put him in his heavy weight and neck cover during first feed. Despite being a little cool he was moving and acting fine. When leaving for a hand walk a few hours later the other horse crashed through a fence (because why not lol) and spooked Jax. He went from calm to looky and stopping a LOT. We got a half mile in and he looked off, so I turned him back for home. I think stress got him today, but this could also mean he still needs work right after feeding for maximum effect (it’s supposed to level out to him being calm 24/7 and not just within 30-120 minutes after feeding, but it takes time and I don’t think we’re there yet).
  • 3/6 – (59*F) – day off work, no supplements (EquiFeast is only supposed to be given 5 days/week), just timothy hay and some wooded pasture
    • Looked good that morning and evening when I checked him.
  • 3/7 – (65*F) – 2 lb beet pulp, EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract.
    • No urinating before work. Worked within 30 minutes of eating his morning meal and he was much calmer than waiting longer periods, so he’s still acclimating to this supplement. We did a 1 mile hand walk with walk and trot, and he seemed just fine. Was a bit funny to catch – was running his field and mildly spooky after a day without chelated calcium, also had a noticeable head flick at one point. Overall though, having two days off this week he has done well! I’m thinking that no hard feed on days off is MUCH better, even though it’s just beet pulp. He got to spend the day without blankets and eat grass in the yard. Was super calm after his second meal and happy to get his evening blankets on. Less than a month ago any grass was triggering spooky behavior – now nothing!
  • 3/8 – (65*F) – 2 lb beet pulp, EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 2/3 dose G-Tract, 1/8 dose Nerve & Spine.
    • Had another morning of running in the field with a strong head flick precipitating the run. After first meal rode about a mile, but he acted back-sore (his sign is stopping and stretching his head down) so I walked him a bit, then brought him home. Back was nice and loose after the ride, so we may still have some issues with the Trekker treeless saddle or this could be residual from having two days off next week – so next ride will be the Edix pad and the Barefoot Physio bareback pad with Trekker panels and we’ll trial the Trekker again once he seems ready. Update: the Trekker treeless and Edix Courville pad work AMAZING together.
    • Overall he was really good, and really calm during the ride. Rode about 45-60 minutes after 1/2 dose of EquiFeast, full dose of Lean Muscle, and 1/4 dose of G-Tract.
    • Stopped to pee before the ride and it was 100% normal. Was happy back out in the field with hay after the ride. Gave a tiny amount of ImmuBiome Nerve & Spine with the rest of his G-Tract and Equifeast, as two separate days with a head flick/running means we need to start thinking about our yearly head shaking issues. He’s also been itchy in his face, so I’m thinking it’s creeping up on us.
  • 3/9 – (70*F) – 2 lb beet pulp, EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract, 1/4 dose Nerve & Spine.
    • Walked just under two miles. Windy but he wasn’t spooky at all. However, he’s been stopping a bit since having his second day off. I need to rethink how to do days off EquiFeast – work if I can and keep the gut supplements?
  • 3/10 – (70*F) – Found the right combination!
    • AM: 1 lb beet pulp, 1/2 EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, 1/2 ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose Nerve & Spine.
    • PM: 1 lb beet pulp, 1/2 EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, 1/2 ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/2 dose G-Tract.
    • Walked a little over two miles and seems much better today. Part of that is finally feeling better from days off, part may be the Nerve & Spine? Didn’t stop to urinate during work.
    • It was WINDY today with gusts up to 40 mph, barometric pressure shifts (which can affect him sometimes and make him less exercise tolerant), and storms on the the way – a perfect day for him to be spooky. He had NO SPOOK in him today! This was his response to some loud noise that spooked some cows in the field next to us:
  • 3/11 – (60*F) – 1 lb beet pulp, DAY OFF EQUIFEAST, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle, 1/4 dose G-Tract, 1/4 dose Nerve & Spine.
    • Storms all day so took the day off, but gave one meal with his gut supplements.

Let’s take a look at a weekly journal, which is more appropriate when there’s not a lot of change day to day:

  • 3/12-3/19 – Taking off Sundays and Wednesdays from EquiFeast but continuing to give this on 5/7 days:
    • AM: 1 lb beet pulp, 1/2 EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, ImmuBiome Lean Muscle
    • PM: 1 lb beet pulp, 1/2 EQUIFEAST Lam Essentials Starter Pack, 1/2 ImmuBiome Nerve & Spine, 1/2 dose G-Tract.
    • He is getting less spooky on days off EquiFeast, so I think he’s beginning to acclimate. That said, he’s still mildly spooky so we’re not there yet. It takes a couple days for him to acclimate back and start building distance, unfortunately we can’t get above 2-3 miles compared to 6 miles before starting. I’m hoping as he continues to acclimate, and as weather improves (too many days with low work due to rain/storms) we won’t have any troubles building back up.
    • On ridden days he’s really calm, but stops a bit. Urine has been normal every time I’ve seen it. He’s 100% with hand walking – no spook, which is beginning to carry over even into days off EquiFeast.
    • The Edix pad is working great with the bareback pad, but I still need testing time with the Trekker saddle. Last time I rode with the Trekker he stopped and lowered his head a couple times towards the end of the ride – his sign that his back is hurting – so I got off and walked him home. His back had been sore that day though, so it may have had nothing to do with the saddle.
    • He’s accepting massage again! He stopped last year when his anxiety started picking up. I worked his right lumbar and glute really well, and he no longer palpated sore after – maybe we worked something loose? I rode the same day I massaged him and he was calm and forward, but we only went about 1.5 miles that day.

Notes on our calcium supplements for horses experiments: Before starting the EquiFeast trial, Jax had been on calcium carbonate for about a year, beet pulp for 6-7 months, and Lean Muscle for about 4 months. He has been off baking soda for over a year, but was on 2 tbsp daily for about 3 years prior and it was essential to his well being during that time – maybe because it helps with oxalates?

Calcium supplements for horses: research links

  1. Oxalates in Equine Forages (KER) Has some discussion on calcium supplements for horses
  2. Calcium-containing crystals in alfalfa: their fate in cattle
  3. Release of Calcium Oxalate Crystals from Alfalfa in the Digestive Tracts of Domestic and Zoo Animals
  4. American Chemical Society. “Too Much Soy Could Lead To Kidney Stones.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 August 2001.
  5. Red Clover Toxicity
  6. Calm Healthy Horses website
  7. What You Need to Know About Calcium Oxalate Crystals
  8. EquiFeast’s chelated calcium journey Calcium supplements for horses containing chelated calcium. I’m currently trialing Lam Essentials.

6 thoughts on “Unexpected Journey to a Sane Horse – Calcium Supplements For Horses, Nervous Horse, Oxalates, and Keeping A PSSM Journal

  1. Very interesting reading Jen!! Thank you. Resonates with a lot of what I’m experiencing with my gelding especially since moving to a yard which has ex dairy grazing (loads of clover!!). I am trying to find chelated calcium to feed. I am about to start immubiome g-tract too. How did you establish that calcium gluconate is the same as chelated calcium? I can’t find any info on it. And also do you know if sainfoin is high in oxalates like lucerne? I want to feed it for the anthelmintic tannins and protein but I am now wondering if it’s contributing to a calcium deficiency! Thank you for any info. Rowen

    1. You’re very welcome, hopefully this info helps!

      Whether a mineral is chelated or not depends on the ion it’s attached to. “Chelates” are typically attached to amino acids or organic acids. Calcium gluconate is a calcium ion attached to two sugar molecules known as gluconic acid, which is an organic acid making this bond a “chelate.” Calcium lysinate would be an example of a calcium ion attached to an amino acid – another form of chelated calcium. There’s SO much more to this, but that should give a basic idea.

      After a quick search I couldn’t find any real info on sainfoin and oxalates, something I’ve not looked into as we don’t have sainfoin here in the US. Oxalate research is really difficult, as there’s just not enough information out there on it. I’d imagine you can search and maybe find the info you’re needing, but it’ll take some persistence!

      I hope this helps!

  2. This is amazing – you have been so accurate with all the data recording. I am already using Equifeast Chelated Calcium for my pony who I bought 18 months ago – this product has made him rideable and reduced his spookiness and anxiety but there have always been other issues that I have noticed. What you say about moving yards and being sold is very interesting. I am aware that horses behave differently for different people, the previous owners were aware of this pony’s anxieties and he had just moved yards when I bought him so he came to me a huge stress head with defensive behaviour. Over time and with the Equifeast CCC he has improved but can get very wired randomly, particularly triggered by sound (dog bells, wind bells). In addition to his anxiety and spooky behaviour (which I had never realised could be PSSM) there have been other issues – he resented being touched/brushed, this has improved with time but he is quite inconsistent on whether he likes either and what sort of touch or brush he tolerates – one day hard scratchy, another a soft brush. I have learned that he likes and is much happier to be kept warm – I have been ridiculed for rugging him as he is fairly well fleshed, but it definitely is his preference and he does not fair well if I omit rugs on a chilly night. He came with an ill fitting saddle that was too long for him but it was a long time before I could change the saddle for a more suitable design (having to make do with a re-fit in the interim period). His mother was tested n/P1 but he has been tested clear as a 3 year old. He is 9 now and I am considering having him tested again. I am also going to speak to Equifeast about Lam Essentials as I think my pony has PSSM1. Thank you your article has been most interesting and useful in helping me plan my way forward. He is already on low starch, cannot tolerate haylage and so is now on hay. I wish I had read about your journey sooner!

    1. I’m glad this site helped! One other thing to consider is vitamin B1 – Jax gets around 1,000mg daily, and coupled with chelated calcium he’s back to his rock-steady self. Since chelated calcium helps the calcium channels (i.e. central nervous system) I feel like the majority of these symptoms are more related to the central nervous system and B1 is HUGE for central nervous system support. Good luck!

  3. Thank you for this page!! Very interesting information about alfalfa that in many places recommends it for oxalate toxicity. I have a question, beet pulp is not high in oxalates. Thanks a lot!!

    1. I’m glad you asked this! I actually hadn’t looked into oxalate levels in beet pulp, but after reading your comment I did a quick search and it looks like beet pulp might be high in oxalates. Beet pulp was really good for Jax for about a year, but recently he hasn’t done well on it so it’s out of his diet. This could explain the issue, as oxalates seem to have a slow build before trouble really sets in for him. Thanks so much for commenting!

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